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Shortcut notes on English Grammar Error Detection & Sentence Improvement 2018

Are you confused and looking for tricks of spotting errors in English, spotting errors in English for competitive exams pdf, English grammar error correction rules pdf for SSC Exam and bank Exam preparation. It is also being asked in Indian Railway exams.
Update: Candidates preparing for SSC CGL, SSC CHSL, IBPS PO, SBI PO, SBI Clerk, IBPS Clerk and RRB NTPC should note these rules for better score.
You can also check spotting errors in English tricks for bank PO, SSC CGL exam. English sentence improvement rules is important for all the govt exams.
Download here pdf for short cut to errors detection in English for SSC exams pdf and tricks to find out common errors in English for competitive exams PDF.
find here hand written notes for spotting errors in English sentences for bank, SSC, railway exams then read the entire article having rules and download the pdf.

English Grammar Error Detection and Sentence Improvement rules download in PDF

English Grammar Error Detection notes: Do you know? India now claims to be the world’s second-largest English-speaking country. Hi, this is TechMario, Your online tutor on various topic regarding govt exams. I assure you, a better outcome if you follow me for 30 days. No one likes flaws, but we are human in nature, unintentionally or unknowingly end up making errors.

If you are preparing for Govt jobs like, SSC CGL,SSC CHLS, SSC MTS, SI, IBPS PO, IBPS RRB, SBI PO,Indian Army and Indian Navy then you are not allowed to make errors in your writing and speaking at the time of writing exam or giving interview.

English grow as sole priority for employer and they seek a candidate having everything perfect, Perfect speaking skill in English, excellent writing skill in English and moreover confident person who can showcase what he/she possess.

Therefore keep all these things in mind, I have prepared notes on rules for English Grammar Error Detection and Sentence Improvement. 

English Grammar Error Detection and Sentence Improvement

List of 100 Rules for English Grammar Error Detection:

Subject and verb uses correctly:

Rule 1: If two or more Singular Subjects connected one after other then Verb will be in the Plural form.

For example,

Incorrect- Shyam and Ganesh is going to Jaipur.

Correct- Shyam and Ganesh are going to Jaipur.

Rule 2: If the Singular Subjects are preceded by “each” or “every”, then Verb will be in Singular form.


Incorrect- Every men and women were ready.

Correct- Every men and women was ready.

Preparing for SSC CGL ? visit here–>  SSC CGL

Rule 3: If two Singular Nouns referring to the same person or thing, then Verb will be in Singular Form.

Incorrect- The Secretary and Principal are coming.

Correct- The Secretary and Principal is coming.

Rule 4: If two or more Singular Subjects are connected by “or, nor, either … or, neither … nor”, then Verb will be in Singular form.

For example,

Incorrect- Neither ram nor shyam were there.

Correct- Neither Ram nor ram was there.

Rule 5:When the Subjects are joined by “OR”, or “NOR” and Subjects are different in numbers/counts, then the Verb must be in Plural form, and the Plural Subject must be placed next to the Verb.

incorrect- Neither the teachers nor the Headmaster was present.

Correct- Neither the Headmaster nor the teachers were present.

Rule 6: When the Subjects joined by “OR”, or “NOR” are of different persons, the Verb agrees in person with the one nearest to it.

Lets understand example similar to rule 5,

Correct- Neither the villagers nor the Headmaster was present.

Correct- Neither the Headmaster nor the Villagers were present.

incorrect- Neither the Headmaster nor the Villagers was present.

Note: In this rule, you need to use the verb for last subject which is nearest to the verb.

Rule 8: Some Nouns which are singular in form but plural in meaning, then the Verb will be in Plural Form.

For example,

Incorrect- Mathematics are funny

Correct- Mathematics is funny

Rule 9: Words joined to a Singular Subject by “with”, “together with”, “in addition to”, “or” and “as well as” then the Verb will be used for Singular Subjects only.

For example,

Incorrect- The President, with all his MP, were kidnapped.

Correct-The President, with all his MP, was kidnapped.

What is the infinitive?

The infinitive of a verb is its basic form with or without the particle to:


  • ‘do’ or ‘to do’
  • ‘be‘ or ‘to be

The infinitive without to is called bare infinitive (‘do‘, ‘be‘)

The infinitive with to is called full infinitive (‘to do‘, ‘to be‘)

RULE 10:The following Verb are always followed by an infinitive:

‘decide’, ‘plans’, ‘expect’, ‘fail’, ‘hope’, ‘intend’, ‘learn’, ‘promise’, ‘refuse’, ‘want’, ‘agree’, ‘consent’, ‘try’, ‘love’, etc.

For example,

Incorrect: I refuse meeting him.

Correct: I refuse to meet him.

RULE 11. KNOW is always followed by How/Where/When/Why and Infinitive 

For example:

Incorrect: I know to write a letter.

Correct: I know how to write a letter.

RULE 12: After let, bid, Behold, watch, see, feel, make etc. we use bare-infinitive and not To-infinitive

For example:

Incorrect: I heard him to teach on several topics.

Correct: I heard him teach on several topics.

RULE 13: Bare infinitive are used after modal auxiliaries.

Modal auxiliaries -> Can, could, shall, should, may, might, will, would, must, dare not, need not, had better.

For example:

Incorrect: You need not to worry about exam.

Correct: You need not worry about exam.

RULE 14: Had better, had rather, has as soon .. as, had sooner etc. are followed by Bare infinitive.

For example:

Incorrect: She had better to go now.

Correct: She had better go now.

RULE 15: Conjunction “THAN” is always followed by Bare infinitive.

For example:

Incorrect: He had better look than to ritu.

Correct: He had better look than ritu.

RULE 16: When but is used a preposition and preceded by any form of do (Do/does/did) then it is followed by Bare Infinitive.

For example:

Incorrect: He did nothing but to roam.

Correct: He did nothing but roam.  — Bare Infinitive

RULE 17: participle like considering, judging, referring, concerning, regarding, viewing, broadly speaking, etc. do not take any subject.

For example:

Incorrect: I concerning your situation. I took the decision.

Correct: Concerning your situation. I took the decision.

Verb uses correctly:

RULE 18: When there are two subjects in different number then we should use different auxiliaries verb (is, am, are, was, were, have, has).

For example:

Incorrect: Three killed and one were injured.

Correct: Three were killed and one was injured.

RULE 19: A single verb can serve two subject if the form of verb for both the subject is same.

For example:

Incorrect: I am introvert and my sister outrageous. ( in this case form of verb is not same, because, with I ‘am’ will be verb but with my sister ‘is’ will come as the verb)

Correct: I am introvert and my sister is outrageous.

Correct: Shiv and bhole is Devotee of God Shankar.

RULE 20: Two auxiliaries can be used with one principal verb, only when the form of principal verb is appropriate for both the auxiliaries verb.

For example:

Incorrect: She never has, and never will take the smart decisions.

Correct: She never has taken, and never will take the smart decisions.

The special verbs can, could, may, might, will, would, shall, should, must, ought, dare and need are called modal auxiliary verbs.

A modal auxiliary verb cannot be used alone. A principal verb is either present or implied.

  • He will come. (Will – modal; come – principal)

RULE 21: When there is one auxiliary verb and two principal verbs then auxiliary verb should be correctly associated with them.

For example:

Incorrect: 10 students have passed one failed.

Correct: 10 students have passed, one has failed.

RULE 22: A past tense in main clause should be followed by past tense in subordinate clause.

For example:

Incorrect: Ramesh won because he works hard. 

Correct: Ramesh won because he worked hard. 

When you say to will, to need or to dare, the verbs will, need and dare are principal verbs, and not auxiliaries.

RULE 23: A past tense in main clause may be followed by present tense in subordinate clause if subordinate clauses represents universal truth.

For example:

Correct: My mother said that the sun rise in east. 

Incorrect: My mother  said that the sun rose in east. 

RULE 24: A verb preceded by preposition must be gerund (such as the ‘-ing’ form of an English verb when used as a noun)

For example:

Incorrect: Teacher scolded me for come late 

Correct: Teacher scolded me for coming late.

RULE 25: The future indefinite tense is not used in the clause of time, place and sure condition. Present indefinite tense  is used in such cases.

For example:

Incorrect: I shall wait for ramesh till he will finish his dinner. 

Correct: I shall wait for ramesh, till he finish his dinner.

RULE 26: The Present perfect tense is not used with the adverbs of past tense (like yesterday, in 1893) In such situation, past present tense is used.

For example:

Incorrect: I have gone to Jaipur in 1993. 

Correct: I went to Jaipur in 1993.

RULE 27: Use past perfect tense to represent earlier of two past situation.

For example:

Incorrect: When i reached station, the train already left. 

Correct: When i reached station, the train had already left.

RULE 28: Two modal auxiliaries are not used together but we can use them by conjunction in between.

For example:

Incorrect: You should must do it. 

Correct: You should and must do it.

RULE 29: When need and dare is followed by not then it becomes modal auxiliaries in that case it becomes bare infinitive and we can use needs not or dares not.

For example:

Incorrect: You needs not to worry about me. 

Correct: You need not to worry about me.

Uses of Adjective

Adjective: it is a word that describes or clarifies a noun

RULE 30: Adjectives of quantity shows how much a noun in value or quantity. All such adjectives (few, some, much, very, little, whole, enough, great) are used for uncountable nouns only.


Incorrect: I drank a few water and ran again.

Correct: I drank some water and ran again.

RULE 31: All numeral adjective are used for countable things to describe the quantity and to show the overall meaning.


Incorrect: My father gave me little advises.

Correct:  My father gave me a few advises.

RULE 32: When ordinal and cardinal used together in a sentence then ordinal always precedes the cardinal.


Incorrect: The ten first teams will be in final round.

Correct: The first ten teams will be in final round.

RULE 33: Later and Latest is used for time whereas Latter and Last refer to the position.


Incorrect: I met him at noon, but he was latter than i thought.

Correct: I met him at noon, but he was later than i thought.

RULE 34: Farther means more advanced and greater distance. Further means additional. 


Correct: She moved farther away from my house.

Correct: I will work hard and further will try to adhere to these conditions.

RULE 35: Each is used for two or more than two, but every is used in speaking more than two.


Incorrect: Every of two teacher will get prize.

Correct: Each of two teachers will get prize.

RULE 36: “Some” is used in affirmative sentence and “Any” is used in interrogative or negative sentence.

For example,

Any – Have you ate any biscuits? .

Some- You ate some biscuits.

RULE 37: While comparing two things/person comparative degree must be used not superlative.


Ram is best than Ramesh – wrong

Ram is better than Ramesh – Right

Rule 38: When quality of same thing/person is compared, you should use “More” instead of -er.


Shankar Sesma  is wiser than funny. – incorrect

Shankar Sesma is more wise than funny. – correct

Rule 39: When two things/persons are compared, then comparison should be on same parameter.

Example, Population of Jaipur is more than Delhi. – Wrong

Population of Jaipur is more than population of Delhi. – correct

Rule 40: Never use double superlative or comparative.

Example, Ram is most cleverest boy in the class.

Ram is most clever boy in the class / Ram is cleverer in the class.

Rule 41: Use of comparative adjectives (Superior, Junior, Senior, Prior, anterior, Posterior) should be followed by ‘to’ not by than.

Example, Hakeem is junior than me. – Incorrect.

Hakeem is junior to me. – correct.

Rule 42: Adjective Like ideal, unique, perfect, complete, entire, extreme should not be compared because they do not have different degree of comparison.

Incorrect – TajMahal is most unique monument in the world.

Incorrect – ajMahal is unique monument in the world.

Rule 43: All the adjectives referring to same NOUN should be in same degree.

Incorrect – Ram is wisest and honest person i have ever met.

Correct – Ram is wisest and most honest person i have ever met.

Rule 44: Elder and Eldest is used for person only for object/thing oldest must be used.

Rule 45: To modify verb/adverb/adjective we use adverb.

Incorrect: He walks very careful

Correct: He walks very carefully.

** Here careful is adjective, which can not modify an adverb ‘very’ hence another adverb ‘carefully’ is used.

Rule 46: Too is more than enough so it can not be used with pleasant adjective. It can be only used with unpleasant adjective.

E.g: “He is too glad to meet her.” is incorrect. “He is very glad to meet her” is the correct sentence.

Rule 47: Quite and All are not used together.

E.g: She is quite all right – Incorrect

She is quite right or She is all right – correct

Rule 48: “Enough” when used as an Adverb, is preceded by a positive adverb or adjective.

Incorrect – She is greater enough to solve it.

Correct: She is great enough to solve it.

Rule 49: To negative cancel each other so do not use to negative in single sentence.

For example, I have not eaten none – is incorrect why because it is substituting actual meaning and referring that you have left nothing and ate everything.

I have not eaten any – correct

Rule 50: Do not mix Hard and Hardly. Meaning of both is entirely different.

Hard: Solid, strong, not easy 

hardly – scarcely, barely 

Correct: She hardly study in exam days. – it means she study very rare or not at all in exam time.

Correct: She study hard in exam days. – it means she works vigorous.

Rule 51: Ago adverb is used in past indefinite.


Rule 52: Two conjunctions should not be used in same sentence. 

Correct: Although He was sick, he still went to play cricket.

Incorrect- Although he was sick, but he still went to play cricket.

Rule 53: “Both” should be followed by ‘END’ in positive sense.

Incorrect: Both Ram as well as Ramesh were playing there.

Correct: Both Ram and Ramesh were paying there.

Rule 54: ‘Neither… Nor’ should be user in place of Both …End if sentence is giving negative sense.

Best use: Both Ram and Ramesh were Absent. | Neither Ram Nor Ramesh were present.

Rule 55: ‘Neither… Nor’ , ‘Both …End’, ‘Not only.. but also’, ‘Either…or’ should be part of same speech.

For example: India lost not only early wickets but also lost series.

Rule 56: ‘Neither… Nor’ should be together in sentence and ‘Either…or’ should be in pair. remember these most confusing pairs.

Incorrect: He neither ate dinner or took juice.

Correct: He neither ate dinner nor took juice.

Rule 57: ‘Hardly’ and ‘Scarcely’ should be followed by when or before (Avoid use of then or that)

Rule 58: ‘That’ should not be used before Direct speech and interrogative adverbs and pronouns in the direct speech.

for example: He asked me that “where i’m living” is incorrect. The correct sentence is -> He asked me “where i’m living”.

This post English Grammar Error Detection is being updated on regular basis. (next update is correct use of preposition in sentence)

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